Traffic signal warrant analyses and evaluations will be performed in accordance with the current MUTCD and, if applicable, any locality Supplement to the MUTCD. Factors which establish the basis of warrants for signalization include vehicular and pedestrian volumes, delays on side street approaches during the peak hours, lane use, crash history, speeds on the mainline approaches, and proximity to schools or rail crossings. Turning movement counts will be collected including pedestrian and bicycle volumes for a minimum of twelve hours. The volume of side street right turns that experience little or no delay will also be documented to aid in identifying whether a portion of right turns should be removed from the minor street volume considered in the volume warrants. A report will be prepared to document the analysis and findings for each of the MUTCD warrants. In addition, for any warrants that are not met, thresholds will be documented to identify how close the volumes may be to satisfying individual warrants. This will indicate to the agency whether the intersection crash and volume trends should be monitored to determine if and when a signal may be warranted in the future. If signal warrants are not met, AMD Engineering will recommend other remedial improvements that may be implemented in lieu of signalization to address any identified deficiencies.
Hybrid Pedestrian Beacon (HAWK signal) warrant evaluations will be performed based on the guidance provided in the MUTCD, Section 4F.01, and other industry standard policies. Factors which establish the basis of warrants for HAWK signals include the highest number of pedestrian crossings in an hour, major-street volumes corresponding to the same hour, roadway speeds, pedestrian crossing widths, walking speeds, the number of available gaps in the traffic stream, and crash histories. Proximity to adjacent signals and the ability to provide clear sight lines for pedestrians and motorists will also be considered. Depending on the proximity to other traffic signals, a HAWK signal, which typically operates on-demand, may not be the appropriate traffic control device. For example, more predictable operation (i. e. traditional pedestrian signal) may be appropriate if the crossing location is close to another signal and on-demand operation of the HAWK could cause blockages of the signalized intersection.
Over the past 15+ years, AMD Engineering's principles have designed hundreds of traffic signals for agencies throughout Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. From the experience gained on projects ranging from small intersection modifications to large corridor-wide reconstructions, AMD Engineering understands the challenges facing municipalities when designing temporary, new or modified signals. Given the limited ROW and vast amount of utilities within many City, County and/or State ROW, there is limited space available for placing signal equipment. One of the key first steps that the AMD Engineering team takes is to conduct a field visit including a photographic and tape-and-wheel inventory of each intersection to verify geometry, relevant street/surface features (e.g. bus stops, parking limits, handicap ramps), utility locations (both overhead and underground), and to obtain an inventory of existing signal equipment and traffic control devices. The AMD Engineering team further understands that conflicts can arise during construction even when the most thorough review of the site is performed in advance. Unidentified underground utilities and other subsurface features (e.g. parking garages, sidewalk vaults) within the ROW are a reality for many urban environments. In such cases, AMD Engineering will work with the project team to identify alternate pole placements or explore options to design an alternate foundation (e.g. spread footing) to support a pole in its desired location without impacting the conflict below.
Traffic signal design plans will be designed per the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and residing agency Standards and Specifications, as applicable. Signal designs will locate all features including poles, mast arms, junction boxes, and conduit systems. Power requirements will be identified including source of supply, the location of controller cabinets and the uninterruptable power supply (UPS) system. To maximize the benefits of the UPS, all traffic signals will be designed with LED signal heads and street lights. The plans will identify all conduit and cable runs, stations and offsets for placement of signal poles, as well as proposed signing, marking, and lighting. The signal designs will be based on current requirements for Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards for ramps, sidewalks, and other features, as well as accessible pedestrian signals (APS) and countdown pedestrian signals (CPS) consistent with agency standards.
In Virginia, left-turn phase warrant analysis will be performed utilizing VDOT’s Guidance for Determination of Documentation of Left-Turn Phasing Mode (v1). Factors which establish the basis of left-turn phasing warrants include sight distance and related characteristics, number of left-turn lanes and intersection geometry, crossing distance/number of opposing lanes, intersection and receiving facility characteristics, critical crossing gap, correctable left-turn crashes, pedestrian considerations, and corridor consistency. A report will be prepared to document the findings for each of the left-turn phase warrants including consideration of the impact of the phasing change on overall intersection operations including pedestrian and vehicular safety, as well as turn lane spillback/through lane blockage.
AMD Engineering understands that the calculation of yellow change and all-red clearance intervals has a significant impact on the frequency of red light running related crashes. Clearance and change intervals will be calculated in accordance with the Institute of Transportation Engineers’ (ITE) Traffic Signal Timing Manual (2009) and guidance contained in NCHRP Report 731: Guidelines for Timing Yellow and All-Red Intervals at Signalized Intersections and when applicable, VDOT TE-306.1 (Yellow Change & Red Clearance Intervals). Factors to be considered in the calculations will be field-verified and documented including approach speed, grades, intersection widths, and left-turn phasing type.
* PROJECTS MANAGED AND/OR DESIGNED BY PRINCIPLES WHILE AT PREVIOUS FIRMS